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Find Information    -->   Biotherapy  References


Hundreds of articles have recently been published on topics related to Biotherapy. Many more can be found in the older literature.

We are now in the process of entering these into a web-based, searchable database, for your searching pleasure.

Estimated date of completion: August, 2005.

You can help us with this project, by donating your time or services to the BTER Foundation. Contact the Foundation to help.

In the meantime, we have listed a few landmark journal articles, below.

See, also, our Links Page for links to web-posted sites of interest and assistance.


  • Baer WS. The treatment of chronic osteomyelitis with the maggot (larvae of the blowfly). Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 13: 438, 1931.
  • Hewitt F: Osteomyelitis; Development of the use of maggots in treatment. Am J Nursing. 32: 31-38, 1932.
  • McKeever DC. Maggots in treatment of osteomyelitis. Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. 15: 85, 1933.
  • Vistnes LM, et al. Proteolytic activity of blowfly larvae secretions in experimental burns. Surgery. 90: 835, 1981.
  • Pechter, E.A., and Sherman, R.A.: Maggot therapy: The Medical Metamorphosis. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 72 (4): 567-570. 1983.
  • Teich S, Myers, RAM. Maggot therapy for severe skin infections. Southern Medical Journal. 79: 1153, 1986.
  • Sherman, R.A., and Pechter, E.A.: Maggot Therapy: A review of the therapeutic applications of fly larvae in human medicine, especially for treating osteomyelitis. Medical and Veterinary Entomology. 2 (3): 225-30. 1988.
  • Reames MK, et al. The use of maggots in wound debridement. Annals of Plastic Surgery. 21: 388, 1988.
  • LeClercq M. Utilisation de larves de Dipteres - maggot therapy - en medicine: historique et actualite. Bull Annls Soc belge Ent. 126: 41-50, 1990.
  • Sherman, RA, and Tran, J: A sterile, homogenous food source for Phaenicia sericata. Medical and Veterinary Entomology. 9(4): 393-398. 1995.
  • Sherman, RA, Wyle, F, Vulpe, M: Maggot Debridement Therapy for treating pressure ulcers in spinal cord injury patients. Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine, 18(2): 71-74. 1995.
  • Sherman, RA, Wyle, FA, and Thrupp, L: Affect of antimicrobial agents on the growth, feeding and development of Phaenicia sericata (Calliphoridae, DIPTERA) larvae. Journal of Medical Entomology. 32 (5): 646-649. 1995.
  • Sherman RA: Maggot Therapy. Infection Control in Long-Term Care Facilities Newsletter (APIC). 6(3): 5. 1995.
  • Stoddard SR, Sherman RA, Mason BE, Pelsang DJ: Maggot debridement therapy --- an alternative treatment for nonhealing ulcers. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association. 85 (4): 218-221. 1995.
  • Sherman, RA, and Wyle, FA: Low cost, low maintenance rearing of maggot in hospitals, clinics and schools. Journal of the American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 54 (1): 38-41. 1996.
  • Sherman RA, Tran J, Sullivan R: Maggot Therapy for treating Venous Stasis Ulcers. Archives of Dermatology. 132: 254-256. 1996.
  • Thomas S, Jones M, Shutler S, Jones S. Using larvae in modern wound management. J Wound Care 1996; 5:60-9.
  • Mumcuoglu KY, Lipo M, Ioffe Uspensky I, Miller J, Galun R. [Maggot therapy for gangrene and osteomyelitis] (in Hebrew). Harefuah 1997; 132:323-5,382.
  • Sherman RA: A new dressing design for use with maggot therapy. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 100: 451-456. 1997.
  • Sherman RA: Maggot Therapy in Modern Medicine. Infections in Medicine. 15(9): 651-656. 1998.
  • Mumcuoglu KY, Ingber A, Gilead L, Stessman J, Friedmann R, Schulman H et al. Maggot therapy for the treatment of intractable wounds. International Journal of Dermatology 1999; 38(8):623-627.
  • Sherman RA, Hall MJR, Thomas S: Medicinal maggots: an ancient remedy for some contemporary afflictions. Annu Rev Entomol. 45:55-81. 2000.
  • Mumcuoglu KY, Ingber A, Gilead L, Stessman J, Friedmann R, Schulman H, Bichucher H, Ioffe-Uspensky I, Miller J, Galun R, Raz I: Maggot therapy for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers. Diabetes Care. 21(11): 2030-31. 1998.
  • Wolff H, Hansson C. Larval therapy for a leg ulcer with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Acta Derm Venereol. 79:320-321. 1999.
  • Fleischmann W, Russ M, Moch D, Marquardt C. [Biosurgery - maggots, are they really the better surgeons?]. Chirurg 1999; 70(11):1340-1346.
  • Sherman RA: Maggot therapy: the last five years. Bulletin of the European Tissue Repair Society. 7(3): 97-98; 2000.
  • Namias N, Varela E, Varas RP, Quintana O, Ward CG: Biodebridement: a case report of maggot therapy for limb salvage after fourth-degree burns. J Burn Care Rehabil. 21 (3):254-257, 2000.
  • Angel K, Grassberger M, Huemer F, Stackl W. Maggot therapy in Fournier's gangrene - First results with a new form of treatment. Aktuelle Urologie 2000; 31(7):440-443.
  • Bonn D. Maggot therapy: an alternative for wound infection. Lancet 2000; 356(9236):1174.
  • Courtenay M, Church JCT, Ryan TJ. Larva therapy in wound management. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine 2000; 93(2):72-74.
  • Namias N, N, Varela E, Varas RP, Quintana O, Ward CG. Biodebridement: a case report of maggot therapy for limb salvage after fourth-degree burns. J Burn Care Rehabil 2000; 21(3):254-257.
  • Fitzpatrick M. Tiny "surgeons" prove surprisingly effective. JAMA 2000; 284(18):2306-2307.
  • Mumcuoglu KY. Clinical applications for maggots in wound care. American Journal of Clinical Dermatology. 2:219-227, 2001.
  • Sherman RA. Maggot therapy for foot and leg wounds. International Journal of Lower Extremity Wounds. 1:135-42; 2001.
  • Wayman J, Nirojogi V, Walker A, Sowinski A, Walker MA. The cost effectiveness of larval therapy in venous ulcers. Journal of Tissue Viability 2001; 10(3):91-94.
  • Sherman RA. Maggot vs conservative debridement therapy for the treatment of pressure ulcers. Wound Repair and Regeneration. 10:208-14; 2002.
  • Graninger M, Grassberger M, Galehr E, Huemer F, Gruschina E, Minar E et al. Biosurgical debridement facilitates healing of chronic skin ulcers. Archives of Internal Medicine 2002; 162(16):1906-1907.
  • Jukema GN, Menon AG, Bernards AT, Steenvoorde P, Rastegar AT, van Dissel JT. Amputation-sparing treatment by nature: "surgical" maggots revisited. Clin Infect Dis 2002; 35(12):1566-1571.
  • Thomas S, Wynn K, Fowler T, Jones M. The effect of containment on the properties of sterile maggots. British Journal of Nursing 2002; 11(12):S21-S28.
  • Wollina U, Liebold K, Schmidt WD, Hartmann M, Fassler D. Biosurgery supports granulation and debridement in chronic wounds - clinical data and remittance spectroscopy measurement. International Journal of Dermatology 2002; 41(10):635-639.
  • Dissemond J, Koppermann M, Esser S, Schultewolter T, Goos M, Wagner SN. Treatment of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as part of biosurgical management of a chronic leg ulcer. Hautarzt 2002; 53(9):608-612.
  • Sherman RA. Cohort study of maggot therapy for treating diabetic foot ulcers. Diabetes Care. 26(2):446-51; 2003.
  • Lerch K, Linde HJ, Lehn N, Grifka J. Bacteria ingestion by blowfly larvae: An in vitro study. Dermatology 2003; 207(4):362-366.
  • Sherman RA, Shimoda KJ: Presurgical maggot debridement of soft tissue wounds is associated with decreased rates of postoperative infection. Clinical Infectious Diseases 2004; 39:1067-70.


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